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Sunday, March 14, 2010

INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT AND ECOLOGICAL ISSUES

INTRODUCTION

Nowadays a lot of attraction is paid to ecological situation in the world. And its reasons are well understood. The reasons to speak about it are not necessary to be named. Everybody knows them quite well. The human progress together with the development of technology is causing a great influence of the global ecosystem, changing it forever.
As the Mornington Peninsula and Western Port Biosphere Project e-bulletin states in it’s beginning: “The global rate of resource consumption exceeds the level the planet can sustain by 20 per cent, according to an analysis published on the weekend by the US National Academy of Sciences.” (Second Edition April 2003)
There are not that many virgin lands on the earth where people can definitely say how that areas had looked before, because the influence of human on world system of nature has changed many places to no possibility of being recognized:  “These unprecedented rates of growth, which could have alarming effects on the environment and the life support system of the planet, have renewed the debate about the future prospects for human societies.

The high rates of economic and industrial development that accompanied population growth in the twentieth century fed fears about depletion of resources and fouling of the land, air, biota, and water in nearly all parts of the globe.” (Growing Populations, Changing Landscapes: Studies from India, China, and the United States (2001) National Academy of Sciences, p.1)
Even knowing the serious out-comes of the realities of modern time people still try no think about these problems, and find a lot of reasons for escaping for the core of this question:
“Most people on the planet worry only about their own families and some close friends, and only for a short period. A few people think about problems of their city or country. D. Meadows expects that more than 90 percent do not think about future millenniums. Billions of people wish to satisfy their requirements immediately and behave on the Earth as if the future does not concern them. They readily waste natural resources, pollute the natural environment, and are hostile to each other.” (The Role of Environmental NGOs–Russian Challenges, American Lessons: Proceedings of a Workshop (2001), p.2)
At the curtain point of development the world authorities began to think about what is going to be in future, and may be there will come a day when society will realize that there is not that much they can do to preserve and keep at least rare example of virgin nature, as the example of nature’s harmony and symbiosis. <!--[if !supportLineBreakNewLine]--> <!--[endif]-->

The purpose of industrial development of any region is to provide opportunities of better living and employment to the people. While industrial development almost inevitably creates more employment in the region, the possibilities of adverse effects on the environment also increased if these adverse effects are not properly contained or reduced to minimum. Thus there occurs a situation in which the material goods increases but the quality of life deteriorates. In the past, environmental aspects of industrial developments were usually not taken into account seriously, as it was believed that this was almost inevitable and almost necessary for the economic development. Environmental movement, for all purpose, had its beginning in 1972, the year of the Stockholm Conference. After Stockholm Conference of 1972 even the erstwhile underdeveloped countries have realised the environmental degradation can be disproportionately more than economic development unless suitable safeguards are not provided from the beginning. It has also been felt that the effects of pollution in all its aspects may not remain limited to the boundaries of developed and developing nations. The hazards of Green House effects and the depletion/disruption of ozone layer of the world atmosphere have become more real than just postulations. In India, our environmental thinking took its cue from the developed countries and perceived the preservation of the threatened species - both flora and fauna. Later two areas related to prevention of any further degradation and depletion of basic natural resources and life support system of land, water and vegetation were identified. The need to preserve the country’s production base and to combat industrial pollution and insanitation in the interest of public health has been felt. Institutional arrangements such as National Committee for environmental planning and coordination was set up in 1972 which was followed a little later by the creation of Central Pollution Control Board.

Environmental degradation affects developing countries more fundamentally, than it does the developed world. It is universally recognised, in developing countries, that, while economic development is an essential process to erase poverty and hunger, at the same time, it is equally important, to protect the environment from pollution at regional as well as national and

global levels. As such, effective measures are called for at all levels of production, to combat pollution and to save the environment, from degradation. In India, our efforts to provide to a vast and growing population, with food, and comforts, could be sustained in the long run, only if we protect and preserve our environment, from further degradation

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transport had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions starting in the United Kingdom, then subsequently spreading throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world. The onset of the Industrial Revolution marked a major turning point in human history; almost every aspect of daily life was eventually influenced in some way.

The commencement of the Industrial Revolution is closely linked to a small number of innovations,[37] made in the second half of the 18th century:

The application of steam power to the industrial processes of printing supported a massive expansion of newspaper and popular book publishing, which reinforced rising literacy and demands for mass political participation.

Industrialization of the 19th Century

The growth of industry in the 19th century affected American's in various ways. Cities grew and developed rapidly, women began to work outside of their homes and farmers felt the impact as rural living developed. Each aspect of American society felt the change in either a positive or negative way. Our country was changing because of industrialization.

Women's roles in society greatly changed after the growth of industry. Women who once were mere housewives and caring mothers now became an active part of the working class. They no longer stayed at home during the day taking care of their husband and children seeing to it that they acted properly and had high moral values instead. Wealthy women were privileged few who were able to stay at home and devote themselves totally to their families.

Working women took jobs for various reasons. Some worked to help financially while others took jobs out of desire for a larger role in society. Women's roles in society changed, and so did their households. Some negative effects took place as a result of women working. Family members were under more stress because of the absence of the main caregiver during working hours. Children who once had their mother at home taking care of them were now being cared for by relatives or neighbors. Working women also had added pressures. Not only did they work out of their homes, but after work, they were expected to fulfill their household duties when they got home.

Women worked mainly in the garment industry. Their working conditions were less than desirable and they worked for lower wages and long hours. Women formed the Industrial Ladies Garment Workers Union to represent laborers in sweatshops. They eventually became part of the AFL.

Urban growth, as a result of industrialization brought about many social changes. Cities grew when industry grew. New factories meant people moving to cities for jobs. From 1880 to 1920 more than half the Americans moved to cities for employment.

The growth of cities had some negative effects. People were moving into cities faster than housing could be constructed. Many new city dwellers who could not afford high rent moved into tenements. Some neighborhoods with tenements slums and crime rate increased. Disease spread because of overcrowded cities and there were unsanitary living conditions. Corruption also occurred in politics. Help was given to poor immigrants, therefore winning their support.

Not every effect of urbanization was negative. The growth of cities also had positive effects. New technologies emerged because of the increased number of people living together. To help with transportation, subways, street cars, and elevated trains were used. Street lights made cities safer and new water and sewage systems were built.

There was also cultural growth. Museums and theaters were built. Teaching improved and newspapers, magazines and novels were available in mass quantities, due to newly printed press. Even communities improved by getting rid of corrupt politicians through political reformers.

The status of farmers changed during the age of industrialization. More and more people were living in cities and rural living was less popular. Farmers joined the Grange, and organization to develop social ties. They became aware that railroad companies controlled them. Railroad companies stored and carried their crops to the market. The Grange and other groups helped limit the railroads power through state laws and a federal law creating the Interstate commerce commission.

Farmers also developed a new political party called the Populist Party. Some of their goals were graduated income tax, direct election of U.S. Senators, government ownership of railroads, telegraphs and telephones. Farmers also wanted "free silver" to help pay off their debts.

After the election of McKinley, the Populist Party vanished. The economy also changed to an industrial economy. The majority of U.S. population was now in the cities instead of the farm areas.

Farmers experienced both positive and negative effects of industrialization. The main thing that resulted from the growth was a new culture in America in which the majority of people benefited from.

Industrialization in the 19th century changed our nation. We became a modern, faster paced society with modern technologies. Women joined the work force and helped develop our nation. Cities grew and developed, leading to advanced transportation and high rise skyscrapers. Even farmers began to feel the improvement of the nation's economy. Industrialization had spread across the USA.

INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION

Industrial: About 57,000 polluting industries in India generate about 13,468 mld of wastewater out of which nearly 60% (generated from large & medium industries) is treated

Air Pollution

Industrialization and urbanization have resulted in a profound deterioration of India's air quality. Of the 3 million premature deaths in the world that occur each year due to outdoor and indoor air pollution, the highest number are assessed to occur in India. According to the World Health Organization, the capital city of New Delhi is one of the top ten most polluted cities in the world. Surveys indicate that in New Delhi the incidence of respiratory diseases due to air pollution is about 12 times the national average.

According to another study, while India's gross domestic product has increased 2.5 times over the past two decades, vehicular pollution has increased eight times, while pollution from industries has quadrupled. Sources of air pollution, India's most severe environmental problem, come in several forms, including vehicular emissions and untreated industrial smoke. Apart from rapid industrialization, urbanization has resulted in the emergence of industrial centers without a corresponding growth in civic amenities and pollution control mechanisms.

Regulatory reforms aimed at improving the air pollution problem in cities such as New Delhi have been quite difficult to implement, however. For example, India's Supreme Court recently lifted a ruling that it imposed two years ago which required all public transport vehicles in New Delhi to switch to compressed natural gas (CNG) engines by April 1, 2001. This ruling, however, led to the disappearance of some 15,000 taxis and 10,000 buses from the city, creating public protests, riots, and widespread "commuter chaos." The court was similarly unsuccessful in 2000, when it attempted to ban all public vehicles that were more than 15 years old and ordered the introduction of unleaded gasoline and CNG. India's high concentration of pollution is not due to a lack of effort in building a sound environmental legal regime, but rather to a lack of enforcement at the local level. Efforts are currently underway to change this as new specifications are being adopted for auto emissions, which currently account for approximately 70% of air pollution. In the absence of coordinated government efforts, including stricter enforcement, this figure is likely to rise in the coming years due to the sheer increase in vehicle ownership.

Waste and Water Pollution

Water pollution has many sources. The most polluting of them are the city sewage and industrial waste discharged into the rivers. The facilities to treat waste water are not adequate in any city in India. Presently, only about 10% of the waste water generated is treated; the rest is discharged as it is into our water bodies. Due to this, pollutants enter groundwater, rivers, and other water bodies. Such water, which ultimately ends up in our households, is often highly contaminated and carries disease-causing microbes. Agricultural run-off, or the water from the fields that drains into rivers, is another major water pollutant as it contains fertilizers and pesticides.

During the last fifty years, the number of industries in India has grown rapidly. But water pollution is concentrated within a few subsectors, mainly in the form of toxic wastes and organic pollutants. Out of this a large portion can be traced to the processing of industrial chemicals and to the food products industry. In fact, a number of large- and medium-sized industries in the region covered by the Ganga Action Plan do not have adequate effluent treatment facilities. Most of these defaulting industries are sugar mills, distilleries, leather processing industries, and thermal power stations. Most major industries have treatment facilities for industrial effluents. But this is not the case with small-scale industries, which cannot afford enormous investments in pollution control equipment as their profit margin is very slender.


Chemical Pollution

As rapidly developing countries such as India industrialise, the dangers to local communities from pollution are often overlooked until there is a major disaster such as occurred in Bhopal.

The effects of chamical pollution is being rapidly felt across India. It has found that the incidence of diseases related to nervous, circulatory, respiratory, digestive and endocrine systems was one to four times higher in heavily industrialised areas as compared to unindustrialised areas. Many cases of congenital deformity and chromosomal abnormalities were also reported, in addition to 11 cases of different kinds of cancer. Skin disorders are also rampant.

The wave of industrialisation that began in the late 1970s has changed the complexion of India's once placid landscape. Lakes, streams, as well as the groundwater are laced with toxic heavy metals and chemicals, as proved by several studies by government agencies and research institutions including the National Geophysical Research Laboratory.

SOIL POLLUTION

Acid rain is rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, i.e. elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals, and infrastructure through the process of wet deposition. Acid rain is caused by emissions of compounds of ammonium, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids. Governments have made efforts since the 1970s to reduce the production of sulfuric oxides into the Earth's atmosphere with positive results. However, it can also be caused naturally by the splitting of nitrogen compounds by the energy produced by lightning strikes, or the release of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere by volcano eruptions.


Definition

"Acid rain" is a popular term referring to the deposition of wet (rain, snow, sleet, fog and cloudwater, dew) and dry (acidifying particles and gases) acidic components. A more accurate term is “acid deposition”. Distilled water, once carbon dioxide is removed, has a neutral pH of 7. Liquids with a pH less than 7 are acidic, and those with a pH greater than 7 are bases. “Clean” or unpolluted rain has a slightly acidic pH of about 5.2, because carbon dioxide and water in the air react together to form carbonic acid, a weak acid (pH 5.6 in distilled water), but unpolluted rain also contains other chemicals.[1]

H2O (l) + CO2 (g) → H2CO3 (aq)

Carbonic acid then can ionize in water forming low concentrations of hydronium and carbonate ions:

2 H2O (l) + H2CO3 (aq) <!--[if !vml]-->is  in equilibrium with<!--[endif]-->CO32− (aq) + 2 H3O+ (aq)

Acid deposition as an environmental issue would include additional acids to H2CO3.

History

Since the Industrial Revolution, emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere have increased.[2][3] In 1852, Robert Angus Smith was the first to show the relationship between acid rain and atmospheric pollution in Manchester, England.[4] Though acidic rain was discovered in 1852, it was not until the late 1960s that scientists began widely observing and studying the phenomenon. The term "acid rain" was generated in 1972.[5] Canadian Harold Harvey was among the first to research a "dead" lake. Public awareness of acid rain in the U.S increased in the 1970s after the New York Times promulgated reports from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire of the myriad deleterious environmental effects demonstrated to result from it.[6][7]

Occasional pH readings in rain and fog water of well below 2.4 have been reported in industrialized areas.[2] Industrial acid rain is a substantial problem in Europe, China, Russia and areas down-wind from them. These areas all burn sulfur-containing coal to generate heat and electricity.[10] The problem of acid rain not only has increased with population and industrial growth, but has become more widespread. The use of tall smokestacks to reduce local pollution has contributed to the spread of acid rain by releasing gases into regional atmospheric circulation. Often deposition occurs a considerable distance downwind of the emissions, with mountainous regions tending to receive the greatest deposition (simply because of their higher rainfall). An example of this effect is the low pH of rain (compared to the local emissions) which falls in Scandinavia

INDUSTRIAL WASTE

INDUSTRIAL WASTES

Toxic waste is waste material that can cause death or injury to living creatures. It can be spread quite easily and can contaminate lakes and rivers. The term is often used interchangeably with “hazardous waste”, or discarded material that can pose a long-term risk to health or environment.

As with most pollution problems, toxic waste began to be a significant issue during the industrial revolution. It usually is the product of industry or commerce, but comes also from residential use (e.g. cleaning products, cosmetics, lawn care products), agriculture (e.g. chemical fertilizers, pesticides), the military (nuclear weapons testing, chemical warfare), medical facilities (e.g. pharmaceuticals), radioactive sources, and light industry, such as dry cleaning establishments.

Health effects

 Toxic waste

Toxic wastes often contain carcinogens, and exposure to these by some route, such as leakage or evaporation from the storage, causes cancer to appear at increased frequency in exposed individuals. For example, a cluster of the rare blood cancer polycythemia vera was found around a toxic waste dump site in northeast Pennsylvania in 2008.

MEASURES

Turn off Sound pollution

  1. Keep the volume of your T.V., music system low.
  2. Honk the car horn sparingly.
  3. Discourage use of loudspeakers.
  4. Avoid the use of band, crackers in wedding processions.
  5. Get all to practise laws regarding Sound pollution.

<!--[if !vml]-->prevent Air pollution <!--[endif]-->Vaporise Air pollution

  1. Keep smoke emission from homes, factories, vehicles to minimum.
  2. Avoid use of firecrackers.
  3. Dispose garbage in bins, do not bum it.
  4. Use spittoons or flowing drains for spitting.
  5. Get all to practise laws regarding Air pollution.

<!--[if !vml]-->prevent Water pollution<!--[endif]-->Purify Water pollution

  1. Never dump garbage near communal taps, wells and other water bodies.
  2. Do not tinker with public water pipes.
  3. Immerse holy idols in authorised places.
  4. Get all to practise laws regarding Water pollution.

<!--[if !vml]-->prevent waste pollution<!--[endif]-->Dispose off Chemical pollution

  1. Prefer organic manure to chemical fertilizers, paper to polythene, cotton, jute to polyester.
  2. Dispose polythene bags through proper channel.
  3. Plant more trees and vegetation.
  4. Get all to practise laws regarding Chemical pollution.

CONCLUSION

Eventhough the industrial development changes our life style and culture it is important to control pollution caused by the industries by whatever means and to save the environment from pollution

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